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Chicaco Style

 
     
     
 

Why Should I Reference?

References are used to record or document the source of each piece of information in your paper obtained from other researchers and writers. If you fail to document information that is not your own, you have committed plagiarism, a form of stealing.


What Should I Reference?

You must reference all direct quotations; paraphrases of material; and summaries of opinions, ideas and interpretations obtained from other sources. If you fail to reference your information, you will be criticized for making statements that appear to be unsupported by evidence. It is not necessary to document information that is common knowledge (i.e., found in more than five sources), but remember that it is always better to overdocument than to underdocument.

You may be concerned that, if you reference too much, your instructors will think the paper is not your own work. That is not so. The method of organization is yours, as well as the purpose which ties the material together, the topic sentences, concluding sentences, analytical and evaluative comments which allow the reader to make sense out of the reference material, and probably most of the introductory and concluding paragraphs.


What Style Should I Use?

Always ask the professor which documentation style is required for the assignment. Styles can vary greatly between journals even within one field. If no specifics are given, this Fastfacts can serve as a guide to one of the standard formats, the The Chicago Manual of Style (known as Chicago style or Turabian Style), established by the University of Chicago Press for referencing in the arts and sciences. Chicago style may be used in most arts, humanities, and social sciences research, including Music, Fine Art, History, Philosophy and Political Science.


How Do I Reference?

Chicago style uses either an Author-Date System or the Notes and Bibliography System for citations within the text. The Notes and Bibliography System is the most common Chicago usage.

This handout provides examples of the Chicago format for both the Author-Date System and the Notes and Bibliography System.


Aditional Resources

This Fastfacts is based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition. If you can't find what you're looking for here, the official Chicago sources contain more complete information.

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003.

University of Chicago Press. "New Questions and Answers." Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/cmosfaq.html.

You can also find more information online at:

Hacker, Diana. Research and Documentation Online. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2005. http://www.dianahacker.com/resdoc/. Also available in print as Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age, 4th ed., 2005, by Diana Hacker.

Page, Melvin E. A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and Humanities. Ver. 2.1. H-net, Humanities and Social Services Online and East Tennessee State University, 1996. http://www.h-net.org/about/citation/.

Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. "Using Chicago Style to Cite and Document Sources." In Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2003. http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite7.html



A. Author-Date System

In this system, you will include an in-text citation (also called a parenthetical reference) in the text as well as an entry in the Reference List.

An in-text citation consists of the author's name, the year of publication, and any specific page reference, enclosed in parentheses. If any of those elements are in your sentence, you don't need to include them in the parentheses (see second example, below). Place the parentheses before the nearest appropriate punctuation mark when it references an idea or paraphrase, but immediately before or after a direct quote.

Two common learning systems involve concept maps and Vee diagrams (Novak and Gowin 1984).

As Novak and Gowin point out (1984), children find concept maps useful for learning.

Put simply, "to evaluate, we must have a clear notion of value" (Novak and Gowin 1984, 109).

The entry in the Reference List provides the full bibliographic information for the work cited in the text. The main difference between an entry in a Reference List and a Bibliography entry (see below) is the placement of the date, which comes immediately after the author name in a Reference List entry.

Novak, J.D., and B. Gowin. 1984. Learning how to learn. Cambrige: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Chicago's Author-Date System is essentially the same as APA style. For more information, check out our Fastfacts on APA Style or our Web site: http://www.learningcommons.uoguelph.ca/.



B. Notes and Bibliography System

To create a citation and reference using the Notes System, insert a superscripted note number at the end of the sentence or clause, or immediately following a quotation.

Start the note with the same number, regular size and not superscripted, followed by a period. The body of the note will normally provide the bibliographic and page reference information for the source being cited.

In the text:

As Spivak points out, "the driving force of the philosopher's project is desire."1

In the note:

1. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, "The Letter as Cutting Edge," in In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics (New York and London: Routledge, 1987), 7.

The difference between footnotes and endnotes is their placement: footnotes appear at the bottom of the page on which the citation occurs; endnotes appear at the end of the paper, immediately before the Bibliography. Always ask whether your instructor prefers footnotes or endnotes.

Subsequent citations to the same work can be shortened.

  • With a shorter note: after you've provided the full information about a source in the first note, subsequent notes need to include only the author's last name, short title of the work, and any relevant page numbers.

    2. Spivak, "The Letter," 10.

  • Using "Ibid.": The abbreviation "Ibid." (a short form of ibidem, "in the same place") can be used when a note references the identical single source cited in the previous note.

    1. Rebecca Herissone, Music Theory in Seventeenth-Century England (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 146.

    2. Ibid., 223-24.

  • For multiple references: Even if more than one reference is being cited at a single location, use a single note reference. In the note, separate the citations with semi-colons and place them in the same order as the text material to which they refer.

    1. Rebecca Herissone, Music Theory in Seventeenth-Century England (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 146; Gary K. Browning, Plato and Hegel: Two Modes of Philosophizing about Politics (New York: Garland, 1991), 87.

Always ask your instructor for permission before using the following newer features:

  • As of the 15th edition, all notes in papers with a full bibliography can be shortened to include only the author's last name, title of the work, and page reference (the format given in the "shorter note" example). The examples in this guide use the more familiar, long style.

  • In August 2004, the Chicago online Q&A suggested it was permissible to cite articles accessed online through scholarly databases or services (e.g. ERIC, Scholar's Portal, etc.) as if you were using the print version. Our examples use the more familiar long style, which includes the URLs.


SOME GUIDELINES FOR REFERENCING ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Remember to acknowledge electronic sources and to evaluate them critically since much of the material on the Internet is inappropriate for use in an academic paper.

  • Is this reference current?

  • Has the work been critically evaluated and if so, by whom?

  • Who is the publisher or sponsoring organization? Does the work cite sources? For information about how to evaluate a website, look at www.lib.uoguelph.ca and follow the link to Library Education.



  NOTE BIBLIOGRAPHY
ONE AUTHOR
Names should always be given in the order and form they appear on the title page. Authors may be individuals or organizations.
#. Firstname Lastname, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

1. Desmond Morton, A Short History of Canada (Toronto: McClelland & Stuart, 2001), 17.
Lastname, Firstname. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Morton, Desmond. A Short History of Canada. Toronto: McClelland & Stuart, 2001.
TWO OR THREE AUTHORS
#. Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

2. Matthys Levy and Mario Salvadori, Why Buildings Fall Down (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2002), 44.

3. H. Ramsey Fowler, Jane E. Aaron, and Murray McArthur, The Little, Brown Handbook, 3rd ed. (Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2001), 278.
Lastname, Firstname, and Firstname Lastname. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Levy, Matthys, and Mario Salvadori. Why Buildings Fall Down. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2002.

Fowler, H. Ramsey, Jane E. Aaron, and Murray McArthur. The Little, Brown Handbook. 3rd ed. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2001.
MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS
List up to 10 authors in Bibliography, but only 1 in notes. For more than 10 authors, list the first 7, then "et al." or "and others."
4. Antonette Healey et al., Dictionary of Old English E, 6th ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996), 16-17. Healey, Antonette, Joan Holland, David McDougall, Ian McDougall, Nancy Speirs, and Pauline Thompson. Dictionary of Old English E. 6th ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996.
NO AUTHOR
Start with the title.
5. Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics (New York: Random House, 1998), 82. Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics. New York: Random House, 1998.
EDITOR AS AUTHOR
When no author appears on the title page, list the work by the name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s), or translator(s).
6. Ori Z. Soltes, ed., Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages (London: Philip Wilson, 1999), 280. Soltes, Ori Z. Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages. London: Philip Wilson, 1999.
AN EDITION #. Firstname Lastname, Title, edition information (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

7. Douglas W. Rae, The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws, rev. ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), 22-26.

8. Jane Austen, Sense and Sensibility, ed. Claudia Johnson (New York: Norton Critical Editions, 2001).
Lastname, Firstname. Title. Edition information. Place of Publication: Publisher, year.

Rae, Douglas W. The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. Rev. ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971.

Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Edited by Claudia Johnson. New York: Norton Critical Editions, 2001.
A TRANSLATION
If you're primarily referencing the work itself, start with the original author's name.
#. Firstname Lastname, Title, translator name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

9. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, trans. Marianne Cowan (Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1955), 92.
Author Last, First. Title. Translated by Name of Translator(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. Beyond Good and Evil. Translated by Marianne Cowan. Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1955.
If you're analyzing the comments and choices made by the translator, start with the translator's name. #. Translator name, trans., Title, by Author name (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

10. Marianne Cowan, trans., Beyond Good and Evil, by Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1955).
Translator Last, First, trans. Translated Title. By Name of Author(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Cowan, Marianne, trans. Beyond Good and Evil, by Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1955.
PART OF AN ANTHOLOGY
If the part is a chapter, short poem or story, put it in "quotation marks"; use italics when the part is a longer poem or play.
#. Firstname Lastname, "Chapter Title," in Title, ed(s). Editor's name(s) (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

11. G. N. Posner, "Models of Curriculum Planning," in The Curriculum, Problems and Possibilities, eds. L. E. Beyer and M. W. Apple (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988), 83.
Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Chapter." In Title, edited by Editor's name(s), page range. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.

Posner, G. N. "Models of Curriculum Planning." In The Curriculum, Problems and Possibilities, edited by L. E. Beyer and M. W. Apple, 79-100. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.
A MULTIVOLUME WORK
To cite a single volume, provide specific information about that volume.
#. Firstname Lastname, Title of Multivolume Work, vol. #, Individual Volume Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, year), page.

12. New Zealand Dept. of Statistics, New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings, 1981, vol. 6, Education and Training (Wellington, NZ: Dept. of Statistics, 1984), 37.
Lastname, Firstname. Title of Multivolume Work. Vol. #, Individual Volume Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date.
New Zealand Dept. of Statistics. New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings, 1981. Vol. 6, Education and Training. Wellington, NZ: Dept. of Statistics, 1984.
When citing several of the volumes, add the volume number to page references, and list the general work in the Bibliography. 13. L. M. Montgomery, The selected Journals of L. M. Montgomery, eds. Mary Rubio and Elizabeth Waterston (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1985-2004), 3:119. Montgomery, L. M. The Selected Journals of L. M. Montgomery, edited by Mary Rubio and Elizabeth Waterston. 5 vols. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1985-2004.
A WORK CITED IN ANOTHER SOURCE
Limit your use of this method by finding the original source (e.g., Zukofsky) if possible.
14. Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37 (Feb. 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78. Louis Zukofsky. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (Feb. 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.
A NEWSPAPER
#. Firstname Lastname, "Article Title," Newspaper Title, date, edition information.

15. Rachelle Cooper, "Doing the Write Thing," at Guelph, Oct. 13, 2004.

Newspaper articles are not always included in Bibliographies. To include it in a full Bibliography, use the following format:

Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, date, edition, pages.
A PERIODICAL
#. Firstname Lastname, "Article Title," Journal Title volume, no. # (date): page.

16. J. Flint and J. Lolcama, "Buried Ancestral Drainage between Lakes Erie and Ontario," Geological Society of America Bulletin 97, no. 1 (1986): 77.
Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title." Journal Title volume, no. # (date): page range.
Flint, J., and J. Lolcama. "Buried Ancestral Drainage between Lakes Erie and Ontario." Geological Society of America Bulletin 97, no. 1 (1986): 75-84.
AN ONLINE PERIODICAL
#. Firstname Lastname, "Article Title," Journal Title volume, no. # (date): page, URL (access date).

17. Stephanie Hom Carey, "The Tourist Moment," Annals of Tourism Research, 31, no. 1 (Jan. 2004): 61, http://resolver.scholarsportal.info/resolve/01607383/v31i0001/61_ttm&form=pdf&file=file.pdf (accessed Oct. 19, 2004).
Lastname, Firstname. "Article Title." Journal Title volume, no. # (date): page range. URL (access date).

Hom Carey, Stephanie. "The Tourist Moment." Annals of Tourism Research, 31, no. 1 (Jan. 2004): 61-77, http://resolver.scholarsportal.info/resolve/01607383/v31i0001/61_ttm&form=pdf&file=file.pdf (accessed Oct. 19, 2004).
A WEBSITE
Locate as much of the suggested information as possible. If there is no author given, use the owner of the site.
#. Author of the content, "Title of the page," Title/owner of site, URL.

18. Rebecca S. Nowacek, "Putting Grammar in Its Place . . . But Making Sure It Has a Place," Writing across the Curriculum, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005, http://mendota.english.wisc.edu/~WAC/page.jsp?id=52&c_type=category&c_id=34.
#. Author of the content. "Title of the page." Title/owner of site. URL.

Nowacek, Rebecca S. "Putting Grammar in Its Place . . . But Making Sure It Has a Place." Writing across the Curriculum, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2005. http://mendota.english.wisc.edu/~WAC/page.jsp?id=52&c_type=category&c_id=34.
DISCUSSION GROUPS
A URL alone is never enough; always provide additional information about the posting.
#. Author of Posting, "Subject of Posting," Name of List, Date of Posting, archival URL (access date if required).

19. Nico Weenink, "18.123 European dialects," Humanist Discussion Group, Aug. 5, 2004, http://lists.village.virginia.edu/lists_archive/Humanist/v18/0120.html.
These types of sources are not normally included in the Bibliography.
PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
You may require the author's permission to include these types of citations. Do not normally include email addresses in citations; if it is essential, you must obtain permission from the owner.
#. Author, type of communication, date.

20. Simon Streatfeild, letter to author, March 28, 2001. 21. Paul Martin, email to author, Feb. 3, 2004.

Personal communications are not normally included in the Bibliography.

AN INTERVIEW
Unpublished interviews provide all pertinent information about the interview in the notes.
#. Person interviewed (any pertinent description), interviewer, place/date of interview, location of any available transcript or tape.

22. Jacqueline Murray (Dean of Arts, University of Guelph), interview by Susan Riggs, McLaughlin Library, October 2004.

Unpublished interviews are not normally included in the Bibliography.

Published or broadcast interviews are treated like a chapter in a book or article in a periodical. 23. Madeleine Albright, interview with Jon Stewart, The Daily Show, Comedy Network, Oct. 26, 2004.

24. John Lukacs, "History in a Democratic Age," interview by Bruce Cole, Humanities 24, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 2003), 7.
Albright, Madeleine. Interview with Jon Stewart. The Daily Show, Comedy Network, Oct. 26, 2004.

Lukacs, John. "History in a Democratic Age." By Bruce Cole. Humanities 24, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 2003): 6-9, 46-50.
LEGAL CASES
The following example follows Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation style. See Douglas College, http://library.douglas.bc.ca/pdf/legal_may04.pdf for more detailed information and examples.
#. Case name, [Reporter Year] Reporter volume Reporter abbreviated title (series) Starting page (Court abbreviation).

25. BMG Canada Inc. v. John Doe, [2004] 3 F.C.R., 241 (FCC).

If the case includes neutral citation information, add that at the end:

26. R. v. Handy, [2002] 2 S.C.R. 908, 2002 SCC 56.

Not all disciplines include legal cases in the Bibliography. If you do need to include them, use this form:

Country. Court name. Case name. Neutral information. Reporter information, starting page.

Canada. Federal Court. BMG Canada Inc. v. John Doe. [2004] 3 F.C.R., 241.

Canada. Supreme Court. R. v. Handy. 2002 SCC 56. 2 S.C.R. 908.
LEGISLATION
Parliamentary Bills: #. Bill number, Title, session number, Parliament number, year, any other relevant information.

27. Bill C-34, Agricultural Marketing Programs Act, 2d sess., 35th Parliament, 1997 (assented to 25 April 1997), Statutes of Canada 1997, c. 20.
Country. City/Province. Bill number, Title. Parliament session, year. Any other relevant information.

Canada. Ottawa. C-34, Agricultural Marketing Programs Act. 2d session, 35th Parliament, 1997. Assented to 25 April 1997, Statutes of Canada 1997, c. 20.
Statutes:
All statutes are published in Statutes of Canada or Revised Statutes of Canada.
#. Statute Title, RSC [or SC] Year, chapter, section.

28. Access to Information Act, RSC 1985, c. A-1, s. 3.
Country. City/Province. Statute Title. RSC [or SC] Year, chapter, section.

Canada. Ottawa. Access to Information Act. RSC 1985, c. A-1, s. 3.
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
If the report names an author, start with that. Otherwise, use the ministry or agency responsible for the report.
#. Author, "Title of Report," Other Identification Information (Place of Publication: Publisher, date).

29. Mordechai Rozanski, "Investing in Public Education: Advancing the Goal of Continuous Improvement in Student Learning and Achievement," prepared on behalf of the Education Equality Task Force (Toronto: Ministry of Education, 2002).

30. Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, "Employment Profile," ISSN 1492-045X (Toronto: Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, 2002).
Author. "Title of Report." Other Identification Information. Place of Publication: Publisher, date.

Rozanski, Mordechai. "Investing in Public Education: Advancing the Goal of Continuous Improvement in Student Learning and Achievement." Prepared on behalf of the Education Equality Task Force. Toronto: Ministry of Education, 2002.

Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. "Employment Profile." ISSN 1492-045X. Toronto: Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, 2002.
COURSE READERS
Treat these as works published in an anthology, citing the instructor as editor (unless another editor is indicated). Use the page numbers assigned in the reader, not the page numbers of the original source.
31. A. S. Winston and D. J. Blais, "What Counts as an Experiment?: A Transdisciplinary Analysis of Textbooks, 1930-1970," in PSYCH*1100 Principles of Behaviour Course Reader, eds. M. Billig and H. Davis (Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, Office of Open Learning, 2003), 6. Winston, A. S., and D. J. Blais. "What Counts as an Experiment?: A Transdisciplinary Analysis of Textbooks, 1930-1970." In PSYCH*1100 Principles of Behaviour Course Reader, edited by M. Billig and H. Davis, 3-19. Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, Office of Open Learning, 2003.
COURSE MANUALS
Treat these as books with the instructor as author (unless another author is indicated).
32. T. Stengos, ECON*4640 Applied Econometrics Course Manual (Guelph, ON:University of Guelph, 2003), 14. Stengos, T. ECON*4640 Applied Econometrics Course Manual. Guelph, ON: University of Guelph, 2003.
LECTURE NOTES
Treat these as books or web sites with the instructor as author if they are published. Course or lecture notes may be considered "published" if they have been copied and distributed in print or on the web with the instructor's permission. If they are unpublished, cite them using the instructor's name, the title of the course or topic of the lecture (likely available from your course syllabus) and the date of the lecture.
  33. Howard Spring, "History of Jazz" (lecture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Oct. 7, 2004). Spring, Howard. "History of Jazz." Lecture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Oct. 7, 2004.




 
 

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